Wednesday 6 September 2023

Benzene’s forgotten isomer takes centre stage in organic synthesis

 An overlooked benzene isomer could become a powerful and versatile reagent in organic synthesis. Researchers demonstrated that the high energy compound 1,2,3-cyclohexatriene readily participates in a diverse range of cycloaddition, nucleophilic addition and σ-bond insertion reactions, enabling chemists to construct complex molecular architectures in just a few steps.

Isomers of benzene have captured the imagination of organic chemists for decades and studies of unusual strained structures such as Dewar-benzene and prismane have proven pivotal to our understanding of resonance theory and aromaticity. High-energy relatives of benzene like benzyne and 1,2-cyclohexadiene have likewise attracted significant interest, their propensity to undergo strain-promoted reactions making them valuable synthetic intermediates.


Surprisingly, 1,2,3-cyclohexatriene has not received the same degree of attention. Unlike the alternating conjugated double bonds of benzene, 1,2,3-cyclohexatriene’s three contiguous olefins lack any stabilising aromaticity and the strained ring structure, resulting from the distortion of the sp-hybridised carbon’s naturally linear geometry, led many to believe this isomer was simply too unstable to be synthetically useful. ‘If you were to try to build this species with plastic models, you would certainly break them,’ says Frederick West, an organic chemist from the University of Alberta, Canada. ‘The extreme angle strain that this intermediate experiences renders it highly reactive and the release of strain in the final product makes its reactions highly favourable thermodynamically.’


DFT studies performed by Neil Garg and his team at the University of California, Los Angeles in the US, evidenced the extent of this straining effect: 1,2,3-cyclohexatriene’s internal bond angle was a massive 11° wider than that of benzene, accounting for around 50kcal/mol of strain energy (roughly four times the strain found in cyclopropane) and closely resembling the internal angle of benzyne. Electronic models revealed further similarities to benzyne, suggesting that 1,2,3-cyclohexatriene would exhibit a similar electrophilic reactivity profile and undergo a variety of trapping reactions.

The team used a method pioneered by Richard Johnson and Hiroshi Kobayashi in the 1990s to generate the reactive 1,2,3-cyclohexatriene intermediate from a silyl triflate precursor, probing the reaction scope by introducing a variety of trapping agents. Following a fluoride-induced elimination to form the triene, reactions with dienes, imines, ketene acetals and nucleophiles produced a diverse array of fused-ring adducts, each containing reactive handles to allow further manipulation. ‘What we see is mostly reactivity of the triene as a π-system, where the middle C=C bond gets consumed in various cycloaddition processes, leaving the other two alkenes present in the product as a 1,3-diene. Like benzynes, it also reacts well with nucleophiles,’ explains West. ‘There are few (if any) established ways to build similar products, at least in one step as done here.’

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Tuesday 29 August 2023

pH Sensors in Chemical Processing and Quality Control

 pH sensors play an essential role in ensuring that products meet certain quality standards, safety regulations, and product purity. In this article, we will explore the science behind pH sensors, their history and evolution, the importance of pH sensors in chemical processing, the benefits of using pH sensors for quality control, and the future of pH sensors.


The Science of pH Sensors

To understand the science behind pH sensors, it is essential to know what pH is and why it matters. pH is a measure of acidity or alkalinity in a solution, with a range of 0 to 14, where 0 is extremely acidic, 7 is neutral, and 14 is extremely alkaline. The pH of a solution affects its properties, such as its taste, color, and texture. pH sensors measure the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution, determining the pH value.

pH sensors use various methods to measure pH, including electrodes and pH indicators. Electrodes measure the electrical potential difference between the solution and a reference electrode. pH indicators, on the other hand, change color depending on the pH of the solution. The chemistry behind pH indicators involves a reversible reaction between the indicator and hydrogen ions, which results in a color change.

The History and Evolution of pH Sensors

The history and evolution of pH sensors date back to the early 1900s, with the invention of the first pH meter by Arnold Beckman in 1934. Initially, pH sensors were large and cumbersome, with fragile glass electrodes.

These electrodes were prone to breaking and required frequent calibration. However, technological advancements have led to the creation of modern pH sensors that are more accurate, reliable, and user-friendly.

Modern pH sensors use solid-state technology, which eliminates the need for fragile glass electrodes and makes the sensors more durable. The solid-state sensors are made of materials such as silicon, which is coated with a thin film of glass or other materials. This design provides a more stable and robust sensor, which is resistant to mechanical shock and temperature changes.

In addition, solid-state pH sensors have faster response times and provide more accurate and reliable measurements, making it possible to measure pH levels in real-time and ensure that products meet the required quality standards.

The Importance of pH Sensors in Chemical Processing

The use of pH sensors in chemical processing is critical for maintaining the quality and efficiency of the process. In the food and beverage industry, pH sensors are used to ensure that products meet quality standards, such as food safety regulations.

For example, in the production of beer, pH sensors help to monitor the acidity levels to ensure that the final product has the desired taste and texture. In the pharmaceutical industry, pH sensors are used to monitor the pH of drug formulations to ensure that they are stable and effective. In wastewater treatment plants, pH sensors are used to monitor the pH of the effluent to ensure that it meets the required standards before discharge.

Benefits of pH Sensors for Quality Control

The use of pH sensors for quality control has several advantages. pH sensors provide real-time monitoring, allowing quick detection and correction of deviations from the desired pH levels. This minimizes the risk of product spoilage, reduces waste, and ensures that the products meet the required quality standards. pH sensors are also cost-effective and require minimal maintenance, making them an attractive option for many industries.

Moreover, there are international regulations that require compliance regarding chemical processing and pH quality control. pH sensors enable companies to adhere to these regulations.

One instance of regulation is REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals) from the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). This requires businesses to recognize and handle risks connected to substances they produce and sell in the EU. They must show ECHA how substances can be used safely and let users know about risk management measures.

Meanwhile, the World Health Organization (WHO) operates via the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) to establish a scientific foundation for proper chemical management and bolster national abilities and capacities for chemical safety.

The Future of pH Sensors in Chemical Processing and Quality Control

One of the main drivers for the future growth of pH sensors is the increasing demand for more precise and reliable measurement techniques in chemical processing and quality control. pH sensors are becoming more advanced and accurate, allowing for more precise and real-time monitoring of pH levels in various applications.

Another factor is the development of new materials and technologies that enable pH sensors to be used in harsher and more demanding environments. For example, pH sensors that can withstand high temperatures, pressure, and corrosive chemicals are now available, allowing their use in a wider range of applications.

Additionally, integrating pH sensors with the Internet of Things, advanced data analysis, and control systems is expected to further enhance their usefulness in chemical processing and quality control. This integration will enable real-time monitoring and control of pH levels, which can lead to significant improvements in process efficiency, product quality, and safety.

Conclusion

pH sensors play a crucial role in chemical processing and quality control. The sensors have evolved significantly since their inception, and the development of new technologies is set to continue. The use of pH sensors for quality control has several benefits, including real-time monitoring, cost-effectiveness, and minimal maintenance requirements.

The importance of pH sensors in industries such as food and beverage, pharmaceuticals, and wastewater treatment cannot be overstated, as they help ensure that products meet the required quality standards. Furthermore, the development of miniaturized pH sensors has the potential to revolutionize various industries and applications, including wearable technology and agriculture.

As technology continues to evolve, pH sensors will likely become even more accurate, user-friendly, and adaptable to various applications. Understanding the science behind pH sensors and their benefits is critical for anyone interested in chemical processing, quality control, and the future of technology.

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Thursday 24 August 2023

Cobalt- Platinum alloy spiced with manganese is an effective catalyst for methanol oxidation reaction of methanol fuel cells

 An alloy of Cobalt and Platinum when doped with Manganese has been found to be an effective catalyst for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) that takes place at the anode of the direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) which is an attractive alternate power source for a large number of energy applications.

Among the different classes of fuel cells proposed, DMFCs have long been considered an attractive alternate power source for small vehicles such as forklifts and as battery chargers for mobile phones, digital cameras, laptops, and other small electronic gadgets, due to their high energy density, high efficiency, and low operating temperature. DMFCs are also much safer to operate because they deal with liquid fuel (methanol). The methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) at the anode and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode are the main processes that determine the performance of DMFCs. Pt is the most often used MOR catalyst. However, fundamental challenges such as slow kinetics, high manufacturing costs (due mostly to the pricey Pt-based catalyst), and CO poisoning of the Pt catalyst make commercialization of DMFCs challenging. Therefore, the search for an alternative Pt-based catalyst that circumvents the above issues is one of the most pressing research problems with respect to DMFCs. Alloying Pt with other transition metals such as (Ru, Co, Ni, and Fe) is thought to be a useful strategy for improving the catalytic performance and durability of Pt catalyst along with reducing the amount of Pt being used in the catalyst.

In this direction, researchers from the National Chemical Laboratory (CSIR-NCL), Pune, and Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences (CeNS), Bangalore, an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) have synthesized a trimetallic PtMnCo catalyst that displayed superior catalytic activity and high CO tolerance when compared to commercially available catalyst. The choice of Mn as a dopant was based on its abundance and affordability and the multiple oxidation states it offers making it a good candidate for electro-catalysis.

In the work published in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces recently the NCL-CeNS researchers have prepared a series of trimetallic Pt100-x(MnCo)x catalysts. The results of this study supported by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), an attached institution of the DST and involving a DST Inspire fellow indicated that incorporation of a small amount of Mn in bimetallic alloy (PtCo) leads to enhancement in the performance towards MOR. Among all the compositions studied, the Pt60Mn1.7Co38.3/C catalyst exhibited 1.9 times higher mass activity than that of the commercial Pt/Ccatalyst. This alloy catalyst also showed better tolerance toward CO poisoning. This improved performance and CO tolerance has been attributed to the synergistic effect of Co and Mn on the Pt lattice. 

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Sunday 20 August 2023

Magnesium Sulphate Market Size to Attain US$ 1,351.2 Million at 5.3% CAGR by 2032

 

The market for magnesium sulphate is anticipated to reach US$ 783.6 million in 2022 and US$ 1,351.2 million by the end of 2032, growing at a CAGR of 5.3%.

Seafood, dairy products, and processed meat are becoming more and more popular as people prefer functional and healthy diets. Magnesium sulphate is a stabilizing element in cheese and dairy products as well as a water retention agent in the processing of meat.

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Seawater and other naturally occurring minerals like kieserite and epsomite contain magnesium sulphate. Sulphuric acid and magnesium oxide can also be combined to create magnesium sulphate. The form of magnesium sulphate that is most frequently found is magnesium sulphate heptahydrate, also referred to as Epsom salt.

Competitive Landscape

The firms' ratings have been drastically improving as a result of an increase in applications. One end-use market where large investments are being made is agrichemicals, which enables them to grow into new application areas. Businesses are embracing economies of density as a big trend to boost their marginal profits and lower cost components like FOB, customs duty, a convoluted tax structure, and higher price points that are out of line with regional rivals.

• In Nov 2021, FDA approved Milla Pharmaceutical's generic magnesium sulphate injection.
• In April 2021, K+S closed the sale of its American Salt business to US-based Stone Canyon Industries Holdings to reduce its debt.

Key Companies Profiled
• Giles Chemical
• Jiangsu Kholod Food Ingredients Co., Ltd
• K+S Group
• Lanzhou City Laiyu Chemical Co. Ltd
• Laizhou Guangcheng Chemical Co., Ltd
• Mani Agro Chem Pvt. Ltd.
• Mag Products India Private Limited (MPIPL)
• PQ Corporation
• Rech Chemical Co. Ltd
• UMAI CHEMICAL Co. Ltd.
• WeifangHuakang Magnesium Sulphate Co., Ltd.
• ZIBO JINXING CHEMICAL CO., LTD.

Magnesium Sulfate market global study goal is to offer trustworthy and practical industry information and statistics on the domestic and global markets, assisting market leaders, investors, small businesses, and others in gaining global market intelligence.

The study gives market participants the knowledge they need to decide critically important things like market expansion and investment in foreign markets. The research projects future economic, business, and political trends and events that could affect how they perform on a regional and global scale.

What are the key benefits of this Magnesium Sulfate market research report?

• The report does a CAGR computation and covering regulatory updates, best market practices, and new trends in the market.
• The report does international Magnesium Sulfate market analysis providing economic forecasts and country wise intelligence, risks forecast, and more.
• The report provides domestic as well as international planning in terms of business expansion and investments.
• The report suggests strategies to the key participants that to enable them expand in their business in existing or new international markets.
• The report is the overall outlook of the global industry economy.
• The report covers all the topics in the

Magnesium Sulfate market to accurately predict the changes political, economic, and business issues and trends that may drive the market in future.
The study covers every market-related problem, market, and idea. The report discusses issues pertaining to the chosen markets as well as the multinational corporations that have recently dominated the Magnesium Sulfate industry.

The analysis includes statistical information that is graphed and shows the state of the market on both home and foreign marketplaces. The research's findings are supported by market hazards and opportunities as well as experts and analysts from across the globe in the sector.

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In recent years, the importance of Magnesium Sulfate research-which use a number of data collection techniques and aims to understand customer preferences, geographic markets, and segmentation that may provide an organisation an advantage over rivals-has grown. The data and information obtained throughout the research are frequently extensive and complicated.

However, these intricate business insights are clarified for the market study's intended audience by using tried-and-true methodology and techniques. Estimates of CAGR values, market drivers, and market limitations enable businesses to select from a range of options. After consulting an expert, a market report is created utilising a few steps or a mix of several strategies.

Magnesium Sulfate Market: Segmentation
By Product Type:
• Heptahydrate (Epsomite)
• Anhydrous (Calcined Kieserite)
• Monohydrate (Kieserite)

By Application:
• Agriculture Additive
• Food & Feed Additives
• Pharmaceuticals Additives
• Chemical Intermediaries
• Pulp & Paper Additives
• Others Applications

By Region:
• North America
• Latin America
• Europe
• East Asia
• South Asia & Oceania
• MEA

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The key business strategies discussed in this market research revolve around-
• Which are the key business segments in the global industry?
• What are the important elements used to study the business intelligence of the market?
• What is the market value of the dominant firms operating in the Magnesium Sulfate industry?
• What are the distribution networks, domestic & international traders, vendors, sellers of the individual segments in the industry?
• What are the entry barriers and expansion barriers globally in the business?
• What are the trends in the market, growth possibilities, investment risks in the worldwide Magnesium Sulfate market?
• What are the prospect opportunities and industry investment chances in the market?

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Wednesday 16 August 2023

Real-Time Raman Spectroscopy for Online Monitoring of Sulfuric Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide

Etching is a method employed during the fabrication of semiconductors to chemically remove layers from the surface of the wafer substrate. Etching is a crucial process, and each wafer is subject to several etching steps before it is complete.


To guarantee that the etching performed is optimal, strict quality control measures are required to determine the acid etchant concentration in the varied mixed acid solutions.

Either SPM (sulfuric acid-peroxide mix, referred to as piranha solution), DSP (dilute sulfuric acid-peroxide mix), or DSP+ (dilute sulfuric acid-peroxide-hydrofluoric acid mix) are usually utilized as etching solutions, with the selection being dependent on the wafer substrate and etching step.

Preserving the proper balance of acid concentrations in these mixtures is vital for optimizing the etch rate, uniformity, and selectivity of the etching process.

This article presents a technique for simultaneously measuring hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid online in SPM and DSP solutions via Raman spectroscopy using the PTRam Analyzer from Metrohm Process Analytics.

Two types of etching processes are utilized in the semiconductor industry, namely dry and wet etching. Dry etching utilizes reactive gases such as plasma to remove the undesired parts of the semiconductor material. Wet etching involves the selective removal of material from a substrate via chemical solutions.

These processes are widely employed in many industries, such as semiconductors, electronics, and metalworking. Wet and dry etching processes are used depending on the unique needs of the device that is being manufactured.

However, wet etching has been more commonly employed than dry etching in producing semiconductors, especially for removing substantial amounts of wafer material and for ease of handling.1

Depending on the layer or material undergoing etching and the intended outcome, different types of chemical baths may be used for the wet etching of semiconductors. Sulfuric acid-peroxide mix, piranha solution (SPM), and dilute sulfuric acid-peroxide mix (DSP) often produce silicon wafers.2

For wet etching to be successful, precise control of the reagent concentration in the bath solution is required. Determining the acid concentration in mixed acid etching baths is a crucial step in quality control that can impact the outcome of the etching process.

Both DSP and SPM are potentially toxic solutions that require extreme caution when handling. Personal protective equipment (PPE) should be worn when working with these chemicals, and all waste materials must be disposed of according to local regulations.

As a result of this, online analysis is required to reduce employee exposure as far as possible and to prevent accidents. In addition to the hazards previously mentioned, the manual sampling of mixed acid baths is undesirable due to potential inaccuracies, time constraints, and interruptions in the production process.

Manual sampling may lead to inconsistent sampling locations and depths, potentially providing inaccurate data regarding the actual condition of the bath. A better solution is required to enable real-time control of the process, minimization of operational disruptions, improved safety, and more accurate and representative data.

A safer, quicker, and more efficient method of simultaneously monitoring multiple parameters in mixed acid baths is through reagent-free online analysis using Raman spectroscopy.

The PTRam Analyzer from Metrohm Process Analytics, as shown in Figure 1, is well-suited for this challenging situation. This Raman analyzer allows the real-time spectral data from the process to be compared to a reference method, such as titration.


There is minimal space available to install an analysis system within the wet bench area, as shown in Figure 2a. As a result, the small dimensions of the PTRam Analyzer make it the perfect solution for confined spaces.

The embedded IMPACT software and the range of industrial communication protocols enable results to be transmitted in the same format to a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), a Distributed Control System (DCS), or a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system for further actions such as adjusting chemical dosing.



6th Edition of International Conference on Organic Chemistry.

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Friday 11 August 2023

STARCH COULD REDUCE PLASTIC WASTE

 



Researchers have developed a way to make a promising, sustainable alternative to petroleum-based plastics more biodegradable and reduce plastic waste.

The bio-based polymer blend is compostable in both home and industrial settings.

“In the US and globally, there is a large issue with waste and especially plastic waste,” says Rafael Auras, professor of packaging sustainability at Michigan State University.

Less than 10% of plastic waste is recycled in the US. That means the bulk of plastic waste ends up as trash or litter, creating economic, environmental, and even health concerns.

“By developing biodegradable and compostable products, we can divert some of that waste,” Auras says. “We can reduce the amount that goes into a landfill.”

Another bonus is that plastics destined for the compost bin wouldn’t need to be cleaned of food contaminants, which is a major obstacle for efficient plastic recycling. Recycling facilities routinely must choose between spending time, water, and energy to clean dirty plastic waste or simply throwing it out.

“Imagine you had a coffee cup or a microwave tray with tomato sauce,” Auras says. “You wouldn’t need to rinse or wash those, you could just compost.”

ADDITION OF STARCH

The team worked with what’s known as polylactic acid, or PLA, which seems like an obvious choice in many ways. It’s been used in packaging for over a decade, and it’s derived from plant sugars rather than petroleum. When managed properly, PLA’s waste byproducts are all natural: water, carbon dioxide, and lactic acid.

Plus, researchers know that PLA can biodegrade in industrial composters. These composters create conditions, such as higher temperatures, that are more conducive to breaking down bioplastics than home composters.

Yet, the idea of making PLA compostable at home seemed impossible to some people.

“I remember people laughing at the idea of developing PLA home composting as an option,” says Pooja Mayekar, a doctoral student in Auras’ lab group and the first author of the study in the journal ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. “That’s because microbes can’t attack and consume PLA normally. It has to be broken down to a point where they can utilize it as food.”

Although industrial compost settings can get PLA to that point, that doesn’t mean they do it quickly or entirely.

“In fact, many industrial composters still shy away from accepting bioplastics like PLA,” Auras says.

In their experiments, the researchers showed that PLA can sit around for 20 days before microbes start digesting it in industrial composting conditions.

To get rid of that lag time and enable the possibility of home composting, Auras and his team integrated a carbohydrate-derived material called thermoplastic starch into PLA. Among other benefits, the starch gives composting’s microbes something they can more easily chow down on while the PLA degrades.

“When we talk about the addition of starch, that doesn’t mean we just keep dumping starch in the PLA matrix,” Mayekar says. “This was about trying to find a sweet spot with starch, so the PLA degrades better without compromising its other properties.”

Fortunately, postdoctoral researcher Anibal Bher had already been formulating different PLA-thermoplastic starch blends to observe how they preserved the strength, clarity, and other desirable features of regular PLA films.

Working with doctoral student Wanwarang Limsukon, Bher and Mayekar could observe how those different films broke down throughout the composting process when carried out at different conditions.

“Different materials have different ways of undergoing hydrolysis at the beginning of the process and biodegrading at the end,” Limsukon says. “We’re working on tracking the entire pathway.”

MANAGING PLASTIC WASTE

The researchers have demonstrated that completely compostable bio-based plastic packaging is possible. Yet Auras stressed that this alone won’t be enough to guarantee its commercial adoption.

The challenges there aren’t solely technical. They’re social and behavioral as well.

“There’s not going to be one solution to the entire problem of plastic waste management,” Mayekar says. “What we’ve developed is one approach from the packaging side.”

Beyond industrial composters’ skepticism about plastics that Auras mentioned earlier, there’s a public misconception that biodegradable and compostable materials can break down relatively quickly anywhere in the environment.

These materials require certain conditions, like those found in an active compost, to decompose in a timely fashion. Outside of those, biodegradable plastics that are disposed of in the environment are still just litter.

“If people think we develop something biodegradable so it can be littered, that will make the problem worse,” Auras says. “The technology we develop is meant to be introduced into active waste-management scenarios.”

“We need to be conscious of how we manage waste, especially plastics,” Bher says. “Even at home, you’ll need to think about how you’re managing that small composting process.”

“It’s really easy to just blame plastic for its problems, but I think we need to change the conversation about how we manage it,” Mayekar says.

The US Department of Agriculture and MSU Bioresearch supported the work.

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Thursday 10 August 2023

New building blocks for chemistry

 

New compounds for organometallic chemistry – sandwich complexes in the form of rings are kept together by their own energy

Sandwich complexes were developed about 70 years ago and have a sandwich-like structure. Two flat aromatic organic rings (the “slices of bread”) are filled with a single, central metal atom in between. Like the slices of bread, both rings are arranged in parallel. Adding further layers of ‘bread’ and ‘filling’ produces triple or multiple sandwiches. “These compounds are among the most important complexes used in modern organometallic chemistry,” says Professor Peter Roesky from KIT’s Institute for Inorganic Chemistry. One of them is the highly stable ferrocene, for which its “fathers” Ernst Otto Fischer and Geoffrey Wilkinson were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1973. Ferrocene consists of an iron ion and two five-membered aromatic organic rings. It is used in synthesis, catalysis, electrochemistry, and polymer chemistry.

First Nano-Sized Rings

For some time now, researchers of KIT and the University of Marburg have tried to arrange sandwich complexes in a ring. “We succeeded in producing chains, but no rings,” Roesky says, who coordinated the work of three teams at the two universities. “Thanks to the choice of the right ‘slice of bread’ or organic intermediate deck, we have now succeeded in forming nano-sized rings for the first time,” say Professor Manfred Kappes, who heads the Division of Physical Chemistry of Microscopic Systems at KIT, and Professor Florian Weigend, Head of the Applied Quantum Chemistry Unit of the University of Marburg. The new nanoring consists of 18 building blocks and has an outer diameter of 3.8 nanometers. Depending on the metal used as the ‘filling’ of the sandwich, an orange-colored photoluminescence results. The new chemical compound was called ‘cyclocene’ by the researchers.

The Nanoring Is Held Together by Itself

The three working groups carried out elaborate quantum chemical calculations to find out why the molecules could be arranged in a ring and no longer formed a chain of sandwich complexes. These calculations revealed that the driving force for the ring formation is the energy gained by the ring closure. “Our challenge initially was to form a ring. Can other ring sizes be produced? Does this nanostructure possess unusual physical properties? This will be subject of further research. But it is clear now that we have added a new building block to our toolbox of organometallic chemistry. And this is great,” Roesky says.



6th Edition of International Conference on Organic Chemistry
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Benzene’s forgotten isomer takes centre stage in organic synthesis

  An overlooked benzene isomer could become a powerful and versatile reagent in organic synthesis. Researchers demonstrated that the high en...